Colorado, Geography, History and Society of Colorado State

Colorado, Geography, History and Society of Colorado State

Colorado, Geography, History and Society of Colorado State

Colorado

Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is part of the Western United States, the Mountain States, and the Southwestern United States.

The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Rio Colorado for the red colored (Spanish: Colorado) silt the river carried from the mountains. In 1861, Jefferson Territorial officials decided that "Colorado" would be a fitting name for a new territory. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it was admitted to the Union as the 38th state in 1876, the centennial year of the United States Declaration of Independence.

Colorado is bordered by the northwest state of Wyoming to the north, the midwest states of Nebraska and Kansas to the northeast and east, on the south by New Mexico and a small portion of the southern state of Oklahoma, and on the west by Utah. The four states of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah meet at one common point known as the Four Corners, which is known as the heart of the American Southwest. Colorado is one of only three U.S. states with no natural borders, the others being neighboring Wyoming and Utah.

Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, plains, mesas, canyons, plateaus, rivers, and desert lands. The United States Census 2010 tallied the state population at 5,029,196 as of April 1, 2010, an increase of +16.92% since the United States Census 2000. Denver is the capital and the most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are properly known as "Coloradans", although the archaic term "Coloradoan" is still used.

Denver
Denver

Geography of Colorado

Geography of ColoradoColorado is a U.S. state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. It may also be considered to be part of the Western and Northwestern regions of the United States. In many cases Eastern Colorado is considered part of the Midwestern United States. Colorado entered statehood in 1876 and was nicknamed the “Centennial State”. It is bordered to the north by Wyoming, to the south by New Mexico and Oklahoma, at the southwest corner by Arizona, to the east by Nebraska and Kansas and to the west by Utah.

The state is well known for its magnificent scenery of mountains, rivers, lakes and plains. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the state population was 5,139,456 in 2014, a 18% increase since the U.S. Census 2000. Denver is the capital of Colorado and the state's most populous city. Residents of Colorado are properly known as "Coloradans", although the archaic term "Coloradoan" is still used.

FLAG OF COLORADO
Geography of ColoradoAn enlargeable map of the 64 counties of the State of Colorado
MAP OF COLORADO
FOREST OF COLORADO
SEAL OF COLORADO
COUNTIES OF COLORADO
Maize growing in Larimer CountyMaize growing in Larimer County
Tenmile Range near Leadville, Colorado.Tenmile Range near Leadville, Colorado.
The University of Denver.The University of Denver.
Union Station in Denver.Union Station in Denver.

The State of Colorado is defined as the geoellipsoidal rectangle that stretches from 37°N to 41°N latitude and from 102°03'W to 109°03'W longitude (25°W to 32°W from the Washington Meridian). Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah are the only three U.S. states that have only lines of latitude and longitude for boundaries and that have no natural borders. When government surveyors established the border markers for the Territory of Colorado, minor surveying errors created several small kinks along the borders, most notably along the border with the Territory of Utah. The surveyors' benchmarks, once agreed upon by the interested parties, became the legal boundaries for the Colorado Territory.

The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet (4,401 m) elevation in Lake County is the state's highest point and the highest point in the entire Rocky Mountains. Colorado has more than 100 mountain peaks that exceed 4,000 meters (13,123 ft) elevation. Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above 1,000 meters (3,281 ft) elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County, Colorado, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in the State of Colorado at 3,315 feet (1,010 m) elevation. This crossing point holds the distinction of being the highest low point of any U.S. state.

Nearly a third of the state is flat or rolling in stark contrast to Colorado's rugged Rocky Mountains. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Colorado at elevations ranging from roughly 3,350 to 6,500 feet (1,020 to 1,980 m).[11] The states of Kansas and Nebraska border Colorado to the east. The Colorado plains are usually thought of as prairies, but actually have a handful of deciduous forests. Eastern Colorado is mainly covered in farmland as well as small farming communities. Precipitation is fair, averaging from 15 to 25 inches (380 to 630 mm) annually.[11] The summers in the plains are usually hot and humid, whereas the winters are often bitter cold, snowy and icy. Corn, wheat, hay, soybeans and oats are all typical crops and most small towns in the region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator. As well as crop farming Eastern Colorado has livestock farming, such as cattle farming and hog farming. It also contains many dairy farms and poultry farms.

The bulk of Colorado's population lives along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This region is partially protected from prevailing storms by the high mountains to the west.

To the west lies the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains with notable peaks such as Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak, and the Spanish Peaks near Walsenburg in the south. This area drains to the east, is forested, and partially urbanized. During the drought of 2002 devastating forest fires swept this area.

Hinsdale County, with Lake City (population appx. 300) as its seat, has been judged the most remote county in the 48 contiguous states. It has only one incorporated town (Lake City). It is one of the only places within the continental United States that one can venture more than 10 miles (16 km) from any road.

The Continental Divide stretches across the crest of the Rocky Mountains. To the west of the Continental Divide is the Western Slope. Water west of the Continental Divide drains west into the Sea of Cortez via the Colorado River.

Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks or high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is North Park. North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Wyoming. Just south but on the west side of the Continental Divide is Middle Park, drained by the Colorado River. South Park is the headwaters of the South Platte River. To the south lies the San Luis Valley, the headwaters of the Rio Grande, which drains into New Mexico. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the San Luis Valley lies the Wet Mountain Valley. These basins, particularly the San Luis Valley, lie along the Rio Grande Rift, a major geological formation, and its branches.

The Rocky Mountains within Colorado contain 54 peaks that are 14,000 feet (4,267 m) or higher elevation, known as fourteeners.[12] The mountains are timbered with conifers and aspens to the tree line, at an elevation of about 12,140 feet (3,700 m) in southern Colorado to about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) in northern Colorado; above this only alpine vegetation grows. The Colorado Rockies are snow-covered year round; a lot of the snow melts by mid-August with the exception of a few small glaciers. The Colorado Mineral Belt, stretching from the San Juan Mountains in the southwest to Boulder and Central City on the front range, contains most of the historic gold- and silver-mining districts of Colorado.

The Western Slope is generally drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries. Notable to the south are the San Juan Mountains, an extremely rugged mountain range, and to the west of the San Juans, the Colorado Plateau, a high semi-desert bordering Southern Utah. Grand Junction is the largest city on the Western Slope. Grand Junction is served by Interstate Highway I-70. To the southeast of Grand Junction is Grand Mesa, the world's largest flat-topped mountain. Further east are the ski resorts of Aspen, Vail, Crested Butte, and Steamboat Springs. The northwestern corner of Colorado bordering Northern Utah and Western Wyoming is mostly sparsely populated ranch and rangeland.

From west to east, the state consists of semi-desert-like basins, turning into plateaus, then alpine mountains, and then the grassland and a few forests of the Great Plains. The famous Pikes Peak is just west of Colorado Springs. Its lone peak is visible from near the Kansas border on clear days.

Colorado is also one of only four states in the United States to share a common border (Four Corners), along with Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. At this intersection, it is possible to stand in four states at once.

Economy of Colorado

Economy of ColoradoAn oil well in western Colorado
Cattle ranching in Jackson CountyCattle ranching in Jackson County
Center pivot irrigation of wheat growing in Yuma County.Center pivot irrigation of wheat growing in Yuma County.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that the total state product in 2007 was $236 billion. Per capita personal income in 2007 was $41,192, ranking Colorado eleventh in the nation. The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important. Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, dairy products, corn, and hay.

The federal government is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD, United States Air Force Academy and Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs; NOAA and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; U.S. Geological Survey and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood; the Denver Mint, Buckley Air Force Base, and 10th Circuit Court of Appeals in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison and other federal prisons near Cañon City. In addition to these and other federal agencies, Colorado has abundant National Forest land and four National Parks that contribute to federal ownership of 24,615,788 acres (99,617 km2) of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state. In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. The state's economy is diversified and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries. Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, minerals such as gold and molybdenum, and tourism. Colorado also produces the largest amount of beer of any state. Denver is an important financial center.

A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories. From Denver came the forerunner of telecommunications giant Qwest in 1879, Samsonite luggage in 1910, Gates belts and hoses in 1911, and Russell Stover Candies in 1923. Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton in 1864. From Golden came Coors beer in 1873, CoorsTek industrial ceramics in 1920, and Jolly Rancher candy in 1949. CF&I railroad rails, wire, nails and pipe debuted in Pueblo in 1892. The present-day Swift packed meat of Greeley evolved from Monfort of Colorado, Inc., established in 1930. Estes model rockets were launched in Penrose in 1958. Fort Collins has been the home of Woodward Governor Company's motor controllers (governors) since 1870, and Waterpik dental water jets and showerheads since 1962. Celestial Seasonings herbal teas have been made in Boulder since 1969. Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory made its first candy in Durango in 1981.

Colorado has a flat 4.63% income tax, regardless of income level. Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income, Colorado taxes are based on taxable income - income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions. Colorado's state sales tax is 2.9% on retail sales. When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, full-year Colorado residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Many counties and cities charge their own rates in addition to the base state rate. There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply.

Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003. The tax break is scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007.

Philanthropy
Major philanthropic organizations based in Colorado, including the Daniels Fund, the Anschutz Family Foundation, the Gates Family Foundation, the El Pomar Foundation and the Boettcher Foundation, grant approximately $400 millioneach year from approximately $7 billion of assets.

Energy
Colorado has significant energy resources. According to the Energy Information Administration, Colorado hosts seven of the Nation’s 100 largest natural gas fields and two of its 100 largest oil fields. Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado basins typically account for more than 5 percent of annual U.S. natural gas production. Substantial deposits of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal are also found in the state. Colorado's high Rocky Mountain ridges and eastern plains offer wind power potential, and geologic activity in the mountain areas provides potential for geothermal power development. Much of the state is sunny and could produce solar power. Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power resources. Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the State offers potential resources for ethanol production. Notably, Colorado’s oil shale deposits hold an estimated 1 trillion barrels (160 km3) of oil – nearly as much oil as the entire world’s proven oil reserves. Oil production from those deposits, however, remains speculative.

Special tax districts
Some of the special tax districts are:

• The Regional Transportation District (RTD), which affects the counties of Denver, Boulder, Jefferson, and portions of Adams, Arapahoe, Broomfield, and Douglas Counties
• The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD), a special regional tax district with physical boundaries contiguous with county boundaries of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson Counties
  1. It is a 0.1% retail sales and use tax (one penny on every $10).
  2. According to the Colorado statute, the SCFD distributes the money to local organizations on an annual basis. These organizations must provide for the enlightenment and entertainment of the public through the production, presentation, exhibition, advancement or preservation of art, music, theater, dance, zoology, botany, natural history or cultural history.
o As directed by statute, SCFD recipient organizations are currently divided into three "tiers" among which receipts are allocated by percentage.
  1. Tier I includes regional organizations: the Denver Art Museum, the Denver Botanic Gardens, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, the Denver Zoo, and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. It receives 65.5%.
  2. Tier II currently includes 26 regional organizations. Tier II receives 21%.
  3. Tier III has over 280 local organizations such as small theaters, orchestras, art centers, and natural history, cultural history, and community groups. Tier III organizations apply for funding to the county cultural councils via a grant process. This tier receives 13.5%.
  4. An eleven-member board of directors oversees the distributions in accordance with the Colorado Revised Statutes. Seven board members are appointed by county commissioners (in Denver, the Denver City Council) and four members are appointed by the Governor of Colorado.
• The Football Stadium District (FD or FTBL), approved by the voters to pay for and help build the Denver Broncos' stadium INVESCO Field at Mile High
• Local Improvement Districts (LID) within designated areas of southeast Jefferson and Boulder counties
• Regional Transportation Districts (RTA) taxes at varying rates in Basalt, Carbondale, Glenwood Springs, Gunnison County
• Occupational Privilege Taxes (OPT or Head Tax) Denver and Aurora both levy an OPT on Employers and Employees

  1. If any employee performs work in the city limits and is paid over US$500.00 for that work in a single month, the Employee and Employer are both liable for the OPT regardless of where the main business office is located or headquartered.
  2. In Denver, the Employer is liable for US$4.00 per employee per month and the Employee is liable for US$5.75 per month.
  3. In Aurora, both Employer and Employees are liable for US$2.00 per month.
  4. It is the Employer's responsibility to with hold, remit, and file the OPT returns. If an Employer does not comply, they can be held liable for both portions of the OPT as well as penalties and interest.

Demographics of Colorado

Demographics of ColoradoThe state's most populous city, and capital, is Denver. The Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area, home to 2,927,911 people, contains more than two-thirds of the state's population. Residents of Colorado are properly referred to as Coloradans, although the term Coloradoans is still used.

As of 2005, Colorado has an estimated population of 4,665,177, which is an increase of 63,356, or 1.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 363,162, or 8.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 205,321 people (that is 353,091 births minus 147,770 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 159,957 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 112,217 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 47,740 people.

The largest increases are expected in the Front Range Urban Corridor, especially in the Denver metropolitan area. The state's fastest growing counties are Douglas and Weld. Large numbers of new residents in the state originate from California, which led some locals to feel that their state was "Californicated" in the 1990s (esp. Denver resembled more of Los Angeles) when lower cost of living and a healthier economy drew in over 100,000 Californians at the time. The center of population of Colorado is located just north of the town of Critchell in Jefferson County.

Colorado has a high proportion of Hispanic citizens and Denver and some other areas have significant Mexican populations, while southern Colorado has a large number of Hispanos, the descendants of early New Mexican settlers of colonial Spanish origin. The 2000 U.S. Census reports that 10.52% of people aged 5 and over in Colorado speak Spanish at home. Colorado, like New Mexico, is very rich in archaic Spanish idioms.

Colorado also has some African-Americans communities which are located in northeast Denver in the Montbello, Green Valley Ranch, Park Hill and Colfax Park areas. The state has sizable numbers of Asian-Americans of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian and Japanese descent. The Denver metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns.

According to the 2000 Census, the largest ancestry groups in Colorado are German (22%) including of Swiss and Austrian nationalities, Irish (12.2%), and English (12%). Persons reporting German ancestry are the largest group in the state and are especially strong in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties) and Eastern parts/High Plains. Denver and nearby areas on the Front Range has sizable German, Scandinavian, Italian, Slavic and Jewish American communities, partly a legacy of gold rushes in the late 19th century (1861-1889).

There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado in 2006. (Birth Rate of 14.6). In 2007, Non-Hispanic Whites constituted 73.5% of the population and accounted for 59.1% of all the births. The first time in state history with the statistic of non-Hispanic whites have fewer babies. But 14.06% of the births happened to parents of different races (About two-thirds to White-Latino parents). Westernmost counties where the majority of residents are adherents of Mormonism there's a slightly higher percentage of families with children and those of under age 18.

Colorado has a higher number of younger persons in median age: 33, according to the 2000 Census report. Large numbers of married couples in professional careers with young children move to the state in a belief it's a better place to raise a family. Colorado is also a major retirement destination by senior citizens in search of a cooler climate, recreation activities and the higher altitude in most of Colorado is said to provide health benefits for those with respiratory diseases.
Climate of Colorado

Climate of Colorado


The Continental Divide dips down to 11,990 feet (3,655 m) at Loveland Pass.
The climate of Colorado is quite complex compared to most of the United States. Unlike in other states, the southern Colorado is not necessarily warmer than the northern Colorado. Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate. As a general rule, with an increase in elevation comes a decrease in temperature and an increase in precipitation. A main climatic division in Colorado occurs between the Rocky Mountains on the west and the plains on the east with the foothills forming a transitional zone between the two.

Eastern Plains
The climate of the Eastern Plains is a continental climate (Koppen climate classification BSk) of low humidity and moderate precipitation, usually from 15 to 25 inches (380 to 630 mm) annually. The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool clear nights, which give this area the highest average diurnal temperature range in the United States[citation needed]. In summer, this area can have many days above 95 °F (35 °C) and sometimes 100 °F (38 °C), although 105 °F (41 °C) is the maximum in the front range cities above 5,000 ft (1,500 m). In the plains, the winter extremes can be from 0 °F (−18 °C) to −10 °F (−23.3 °C) and −15 °F (−26.1 °C). The all time low in the area was −40 °F (−40.0 °C) About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts. Most of the precipitation comes from thunderstorms, which are often severe, and from major snowstorms that occur most often in the early spring, late autumn, and sometimes winter. Otherwise, winters tend to be mostly dry and cold. In much of the region, March and April are the snowiest months. April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month overall. The Front Range cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to chinook winds which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures of 40 °F (4 °C) or higher in the winter. The average July temperature is 55 °F (13 °C) in the morning and 80 °F (27 °C) in the afternoon. The average January temperature is 10 °F (−12 °C) in the morning and 30 °F (−1 °C) in the afternoon, although variation between consecutive days can be 40 °F (4 °C).

West of the plains and foothills
West of the plains and foothills, the weather of Colorado is much less uniform. Even places a few miles apart can experience entirely different weather depending on the topography of the area. Most valleys have a semi-arid climate, which becomes an alpine climate at higher elevations. Humid microclimates also exist in some areas. Generally, the wettest season in western Colorado is winter while June is the driest month. This is the opposite of precipitation patterns in the east. The mountains have cool summers with many days of high temperatures around 60 °F (16 °C) to 70 °F (21 °C), although frequent thunderstorms can cause sudden drops in temperature. Summer nights are cool or even cold at the highest elevations, which sometimes get snow even in the middle of the summer. The winters bring abundant, powdery snowfall to the mountains with abundant sunshine in between major storms. The western slope has high summer temperatures similar to those found on the plains, while the winters tend to be slightly cooler due to the lack of warming winds common to the plains and Front Range. Other areas in the west have their own unique climate. The San Luis Valley is generally dry with little rain or snow, although the snow that falls tends to stay on the ground all winter.

Extreme weather
Snow highlights the rugged mountains as well as the urban and agricultural landscapes of the Colorado plains. Extreme weather is a common occurrence in Colorado. Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental divide in the spring and summer, and Colorado is one of the leading states in deaths due to lightning. Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the divide and in the northwest part of the state. The Eastern Plains have some of the biggest hail storms in North America. Also the Eastern Plains are part of Tornado Alley and produce some of the deadliest U.S. tornadoes. Some damaging tornadoes in the Eastern Plains include the 1990 Limon F3 tornado and the 2008 Windsor EF3 tornado, which devastated the town. The plains are also susceptible to floods, which are caused both by thunderstorms and by the rapid melting of snow in the mountains during warm weather. Denver's 1901 record for number of consecutive days above 90 °F (32 °C) was broken in the summer of 2008. The new record of twenty-four (24) consecutive days surpassed the previous record by almost a week. Colorado is a relatively dry state averaging only 17 inches (430 mm) of rain per year and rarely experiences a time when some portion of the state is not in some degree of drought. The lack of precipitation contributes to the severity of wildfires in the state such as the Hayman Fire, one of the largest wildfires in US history.

Records
The highest temperature ever recorded in Colorado was 118 °F (48 °C) on July 11, 1888, at Bennett, while the lowest was −61 °F (−51.7 °C) on February 1, 1985, at Maybell.

Health of ColoradoHealth of Colorado


Health
Colorado also has a reputation for being a state of very active and athletic people. According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US. As of 2007 the 17.6% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 16.9% from 2004. Colorado Governor Bill Ritter spoke that “As an avid fisherman and bike rider, I know first-hand that Colorado provides a great environment for active, healthy lifestyles,” although he did highlight the need for continued education and support to slow the growth of obesity in the state.

Government and Politics of Colorado

Government and Politics of Colorado
The Colorado State Capitol in Denver
State government
Like all U.S. states, Colorado's constitution provides for three branches of government: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The governor heads the state's executive branch. The Colorado Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the state. The state legislative body is the Colorado General Assembly, which is made up of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House has 65 members and the Senate has 35. Currently, Democrats control both chambers of the General Assembly. The 2005 Colorado General Assembly was the first to be controlled by the Democrats in forty years. The incumbent governor is Democrat August William "Bill" Ritter, Jr..

Most Coloradans are originally native to other states (nearly 60% according to the 2000 census[48]), and this is illustrated by the fact that the state did not have a native-born governor from 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof left office) until 2007, when Bill Ritter took office; his election the previous year marked the first electoral victory for a native-born Coloradan in a gubernatorial race since 1958 (Vanderhoof had ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love was given a position in Richard Nixon's administration in 1973).

Federal politics
Colorado is considered a swing state in both state and federal elections. Coloradans have elected 17 Democrats and 12 Republicans to the governorship in the last 100 years. In presidential politics, Colorado supported Democrats Bill Clinton in 1992 and Barack Obama in 2008, and supported Republicans Robert J. Dole in 1996 and George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004. The presidential outcome in 2008 was the second closest to the national popular vote, after Virginia.
Colorado politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs and liberal cities such as Boulder. Democrats are strongest in metropolitan Denver, the college towns of Fort Collins and Boulder, southern Colorado (including Pueblo), and a few western ski resort counties. The Republicans are strongest in the Eastern Plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, some Denver suburbs, and the western half of the state (including Grand Junction). The fastest growing parts of the state particularly Douglas, Elbert, and Weld Counties, in the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area, are somewhat Republican-leaning.

Colorado is represented by two United States Senators:

• United States Senate Class 2 - Mark Emery Udall (Democratic) 2009-
• United States Senate Class 3 - Michael Farrand Bennet (Democratic) 2009

The State of Colorado is represented by seven Representatives to the United States House of Representatives:

• Colorado's 1st congressional district - Diana DeGette (Democratic) 1997-
• Colorado's 2nd congressional district - Jared Polis (Democratic) 2009-
• Colorado's 3rd congressional district - John Salazar (Democratic) 2005-
• Colorado's 4th congressional district - Betsy Markey (Democratic) 2009-
• Colorado's 5th congressional district - Doug Lamborn (Republican) 2007-
• Colorado's 6th congressional district - Mike Coffman (Republican) 2009-
• Colorado's 7th congressional district - Ed Perlmutter (Democratic) 2007-

See also: United States presidential election, 2004, in Colorado, Colorado's congressional elections, 2006, Colorado gubernatorial election, 2006, and Political party strength in Colorado
Religion of Colorado

Religion of Colorado


The Chapel on the Rock at Camp Saint Malo near Allenspark.
Colorado's most popular religion is Christianity, and it's most popular denomination of Christianity is Catholicism. Colorado, and specifically the city of Colorado Springs, serves as the headquarters of numerous Christian groups, many of them Evangelical. Focus on the Family is a major conservative Christian organization headquartered in Colorado Springs.

Major religious affiliations of the people of Colorado are:
• Christian — 65%
  • Protestant — 44%
  1. Evangelical — 23%
  2. Mainline — 19%
  • Other Protestant — 2%
  1. Roman Catholic — 19%
  2. Orthodox — 1%
  3. Latter Day Saint / Mormon — 2%
• Jewish — 2%
• Muslim — 1%
• Other Religions — 5%
• Unaffiliated — 25%

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 752,505; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 92,326 (133,727 year-end 2009) ; and Baptist with 85,083.

Sports in Colorado

Sports in ColoradoThe Colorado Rockies National League baseball club at Coors Field in Denver.
Sports in ColoradoDick's Sporting Goods Park in Commerce City, home of the Colorado Rapids Major League Soccer club.
Sports
Colorado is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues. The state is able to support the teams because it contains a large metropolitan area with a higher population than any other city within 550 miles (885 km). Therefore, many of the residents in the surrounding states support the teams in Denver, as shown by the reach of the Broncos' radio network

Nationally Protected Areas in Colorado

Nationally Protected Areas in Colorado
Colorado National Monument
Nationally Protected Areas in Colorado:

• Arapaho National Recreation Area
• Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site
• Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
• Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
• Colorado National Monument
• Continental Divide National Scenic Trail
• Curecanti National Recreation Area
• Dinosaur National Monument
• Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument
• Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve
• Hovenweep National Monument
• Mesa Verde National Park and UNESCO World Heritage Site
• Old Spanish National Historic Trail
• Pony Express National Historic Trail
• Rocky Mountain National Park
• Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
• Santa Fe National Historic Trail
• Yucca House National Monument

 History of Colorado

History of ColoradoThe region that is today the State of Colorado has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13 millennia. The Lindenmeier Site in Larimer County contains artifacts dating from approximately 11200 BCE to 3000 BCE. The Ancient Pueblo Peoples lived in the valleys and mesas of the Colorado Plateau. The Ute Nation inhabited the mountain valleys of the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Western Rocky Mountains. The Arapaho Nation and the Cheyenne Nation moved west to hunt across the High Plains.

 The United States acquired a territorial claim to the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains with the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. The U.S. claim conflicted with Spain's claim that a huge region surrounding its colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico was its sovereign trading zone. Zebulon Pike led a U.S. Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region in 1806. Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalry in the San Luis Valley the following February, taken to Chihuahua, and expelled from México the following July. 

1872 colorado
A lithograph of the Denver City mining camp in 1859.A lithograph of the Denver City mining camp in 1859.
Bent's Old Fort along the Arkansas River operated from 1833 to 1849.Bent's Old Fort along the Arkansas River operated from 1833 to 1849.
Spruce Tree House in Mesa Verde National ParkSpruce Tree House in Mesa Verde National Park
The Georgetown Loop of the Colorado Central Railroad as photographed by William H. Jackson in 1899.The Georgetown Loop of the Colorado Central Railroad as photographed by William H. Jackson in 1899.
The ruins of the Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde as photographed by Gustaf Nordenskiöld in 1891.The ruins of the Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde as photographed by Gustaf Nordenskiöld in 1891.

The United States relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River as part of the U.S. purchase of Florida from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. México finally won its independence from Spain in 1821, but it surrendered its northern territories to the United States after the Mexican-American War with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. In 1849, the Mormons of Deseret (now Utah) organized the extralegal State of Deseret which claimed all land drained by the Green River and the Colorado River. The federal government refused to recognize the new government, and the Mormons declined to settle east of the Green River for more than 20 years. The United States divided the area of the future Colorado among the Territory of New Mexico and the Territory of Utah organized in 1850, and the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska organized in 1854.

Most American settlers traveling west to Oregon, Deseret, or California avoided the rugged Rocky Mountains and instead followed the North Platte River and Sweetwater River through what is now Wyoming. On April 9, 1851, Hispanic settlers from Taos, New Mexico, settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, but now Colorado's first permanent European settlement. Gold was discovered along the South Platte River in western Kansas Territory in July 1858, precipitating the Pike's Peak Gold Rush.[21] The placer gold deposits along the rivers and streams of the region rapidly played out, but miners soon discovered far more valuable seams of hard rock gold, silver, and other minerals in the nearby mountains.

The Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson was organized on August 24, 1859, but the new territory failed to secure federal sanction. The election of Abraham Lincoln for U.S. President on November 6, 1860, led to the secession of six slave states and the threat of civil war. Seeking to augment the political power of the free states, the Republican led U.S. Congress hurriedly admitted the eastern portion of the Territory of Kansas to the Union as the free State of Kansas on January 29, 1861, leaving the western portion of the territory, and its gold fields, unorganized.

Thirty days later on February 28, 1861, outgoing U.S. President James Buchanan signed an act of Congress organizing the free Territory of Colorado. The original boundaries of Colorado remain unchanged today. The name Colorado was chosen because it was commonly believed that the Colorado River originated in the territory. Early Spanish explorers named the river the Rio Colorado for the reddish-brown silt the river carried from the mountains. In fact, the Colorado River did not flow through the State of Colorado until House Joint Resolution 460 of the 66th United States Congress changed the name of the Grand River to the Colorado River on July 25, 1921.

The United States Congress passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado to become a state.[8] On August 1, 1876 (28 days after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting the State of Colorado to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State".[26] The discovery of a major silver lode near Leadville in 1878, triggered the Colorado Silver Boom. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 envigorated silver mining, but the repeal of the act in 1893 led to a major collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of the state.

Colorado women were granted the right to vote beginning on November 7, 1893, making Colorado the second U.S. state to grant universal suffrage and the first by popular vote. By the 1930 U.S. Census, the population of Colorado exceeded one million residents. The state suffered through the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, but a major wave of immigration following World War II boosted Colorado's fortune. Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine. Colorado's population exceeded 4.4 million at U.S. Census 2000 (Est. 2010).

Three warships of the United States Navy have been named USS Colorado. The first USS Colorado was named for the Colorado River. The later two ships were named in honor of the landlocked state.

Alamosa

Alamosa

Alamosa

The City of Alamosa is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and the most populous city of Alamosa County, Colorado, United States. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the city population was 8,682 in 2005. The city is the commercial center of the San Luis Valley in south-central Colorado.

Alamosa was established in May 1878 by the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad and quickly became an important rail center. The railroad had an extensive construction, repair and shipping facility in Alamosa for many years and headquartered its remaining narrow gauge service here with trackage reaching many points throughout southwest Colorado and northern New Mexico. Alamosa is now a notable tourist town with many nearby attractions including the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. The town hosts a Sunshine Summerfest on the Rio Festival which occurs the first weekend in June. The city takes its name from the Alamosa River. The name "Alamosa" means "shaded with cottonwoods" in Spanish.

Aurora

Aurora

Aurora

Aurora is a Home Rule Municipality that is the third most populous city in the State of Colorado and the 59th most populous city in the United States. The population was 276,393 at the 2000 census, with an estimated population of 295,835 in 2007. The municipality is split between Arapahoe County and Adams County, with a small portion lying in Douglas County. The city and its western neighbor are the principal cities of the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in 2007 had an estimated population of 2,464,866. (22nd most populous MSA), the estimated population of the Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area was 2,998,878 (15th most populous CSA),.

The city's official elevation, posted on signs at the city limits, is 5,471 feet (1,668 m). However, the city spans a difference in elevation of nearly 1,000 feet (300 m). The lowest elevation of 5,285 feet (1,611 m) is found at the point where Sand Creek crosses the city limit in the northwest corner of the city, while the highest elevation of 6,229 feet (1,899 m) is on the extreme southern border of the city in Douglas County, near the intersection of Inspiration and Gartrell Roads.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 142.7 square miles (369.7 km²), of which, 142.5 square miles (369.1 km²) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.6 km²) of it (0.17%) is water.

Aurora straddles Interstate 70, Interstate 225 and the E-470 beltway. The Regional Transportation District's light rail transit system was extended to serve the southwestern edge of Aurora on November 17, 2006. The G Line and H Line stop at Aurora's Dayton and Nine Mile Stations; a comprehensive network of feeder buses in southern Aurora serve the latter. An extension of light rail along I-225 through the city is planned to connect with a commuter rail line between downtown Denver and Denver International Airport (DIA), both scheduled for completion by 2015. Much of Aurora is more convenient to DIA than Denver itself. This proximity is a factor in the expected growth of the E-470 corridor directly south of DIA, projected to eventually accommodate 250,000 additional Aurora residents.

Metropolitan Areas

The United States Census Bureau has defined seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs), and one Combined Statistical Area (CSA) in the State of Colorado.
Metropolitan AreasThe skyline of downtown Denver with Speer Boulevard in the foreground.
Denver World Trade Center.Denver World Trade Center.
COLORADO SPRINGSCOLORADO SPRINGS
COLORADO SPRINGS

Colorado Springs

AURORAAURORA
PUEBLOPUEBLO
Counties
1. City and County of Denver
2. El Paso County
3. Arapahoe County
4. Jefferson County
5. Adams County
6. Boulder County
7. Larimer County
8. Douglas County
9. Weld County
10. Pueblo County
11. Mesa County
12. Garfield County
13. City and County of Broomfield
14. Eagle County
15. La Plata County Colorado Springs

Colorado Springs Colorado Springs

Colorado Springs is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and most populous city of El Paso County, Colorado, United States. With an estimated population of 396,427 in 2015, it is the second most populous city in the state of Colorado and the 47th most populous city in the United States. This count differs significantly from the Colorado Department of Local Affairs' 2015 estimate of 420,417. In 2015 the Colorado Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 630,090.

Colorado Springs is located just east of the geographic center of the state and 61 miles (98 km) south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet (1839 meters) Colorado Springs sits over one mile above sea level, though some areas of the city are significantly higher. The city is situated near the base of one of the most famous American mountains, Pikes Peak, at the eastern edge of the southern Rocky Mountains. Colorado Springs was selected as the No. 1 Best Big City in "Best Places to Live" by Money magazine in 2014. 

Colorado Springs
Colorado Springs
Colorado Springs

List of Cities in Colorado

List of Cities in Colorado
A
Agate, Aguilar, Akron, Alamosa, Allenspark, Alma, Almont, Amherst, Anton, Antonito, Arapahoe, Arboles, Arlington, Arriba, Arvada, Aspen, Atwood, Ault, Aurora, Austin, Avon, Avondale

B
Bailey, Basalt, Battlement Mesa, Bayfield, Beaver Creek, Bedrock, Bellvue, Bennett, Berthoud, Bethune, Beulah, Black Hawk, Blanca, Boncarbo, Bond, Boone, Boulder, Branson, Breckenridge, Briggsdale, Brighton, Broomfield, Brush, Buena Vista, Buffalo Creek, Burlington, Burns, Byers

C
Cahone, Calhan, Campo, Canon City, Capulin, Carbondale, Carr, Cascade, Castle Rock, Cedaredge, Center, Central City, Chama, Cheraw, Cheyenne Wells, Chimney Rock, Chromo, Cimarron, Clark, Clifton, Climax, Coal Creek, Coaldale, Coalmont, Collbran, Colorado City, Colorado Springs, Commerce City, Como, Conejos, Conifer, Cope, Copper Mountain, Coronado, Cortez, Cory, Cotopaxi, Cowdrey, Craig, Crawford, Creede, Crested Butte, Crestone, Cripple Creek, Crook, Crowley

D
Dacono, De Beque, Deer Trail, Del Norte, Delta, Denver, Dillon, Dinosaur, Divide, Dolores, Dove Creek, Drake, Dumont, Dupont, Durango

E
Eads, Eagle, Eastlake, Eaton, Eckert, Eckley, Edwards, Egnar, Elbert, Eldorado Springs, Elizabeth, Empire, Englewood, Erie, Estes Park, Evans, Evergreen

F
Fairplay, Firestone, Flagler, Fleming, Florence, Florissant, Fort Collins, Fort Garland, Fort Lupton, Fort Lyon, Fort Morgan, Fountain, Fowler, Franktown, Fraser, Frederick, Frisco, Fruita

G
Galeton, Garcia, Gardner, Gateway, Genoa, Georgetown, Gilcrest, Gill, Glade Park, Glen Haven, Glendale, Glenwood Springs, Golden, Granada, Granby, Grand Junction, Grand Lake, Granite, Grant, Greeley, Green Mountain Falls, Greenwood Village, Grover, Guffey, Gulnare, Gunnison, Gypsum

H
Hamilton, Hartman, Hartsel, Hasty, Haswell, Haxtun, Hayden, Henderson, Hereford, Hesperus, Highlands Ranch, Hillrose, Hillside, Hoehne, Holly, Holyoke, Homelake, Hooper, Hot Sulphur Springs, Hotchkiss, Howard, Hudson, Hugo, Hygiene

I
Idaho Springs, Idalia, Idledale, Ignacio, Iliff, Indian Hills

J
Jamestown, Jaroso, Jefferson, Joes, Johnstown, Julesburg

K
Karval, Keenesburg, Kersey, Keystone, Kim, Kiowa, Kirk, Kit Carson, Kittredge, Kremmling

L
La Jara, La Junta, La Salle, La Veta, Lafayette, Lake City, Lake George, Lakewood, Lamar, Laporte, Larkspur, Las Animas, Lazear, Leadville, Lewis, Limon, Lindon, Littleton, Livermore, Log Lane Village, Loma, Lone Tree, Longmont, Louisville, Louviers, Loveland, Lucerne, Lyons

M
Mack, Maher, Manassa, Mancos, Manitou Springs, Manzanola, Marvel, Masonville, Matheson, Maybell, Mc Clave, Mc Coy, Mead, Meeker, Meredith, Merino, Mesa, Mesa Verde National Park, Milliken, Minturn, Model, Moffat, Molina, Monarch, Monte Vista, Montrose, Monument, Morrison, Mosca, Mountain Village

N
Nathrop, Naturita, Nederland, New Castle, New Raymer, Niwot, Northglenn, Norwood, Nucla, Nunn

O
Oak Creek, Ohio City, Olathe, Olney Springs, Ophir, Orchard, Ordway, Otis, Ouray, Ovid

P
Padroni, Pagosa Springs, Palisade, Palmer Lake, Paoli, Paonia, Parachute, Paradox, Parker, Parlin, Parshall, Peetz, Penrose, Peyton, Phippsburg, Pierce, Pine, Pinecliffe, Pitkin, Placerville, Platteville, Pleasant View, Poncha Springs, Powderhorn, Pritchett, Pueblo

R
Ramah, Rand, Rangely, Red Cliff, Red Feather Lakes, Redstone, Redvale, Rico, Ridgway, Rifle, Rockvale, Rocky Ford, Roggen, Rollinsville, Romeo, Rush, Rye

S
Saguache, Salida, San Luis, San Pablo, Sanford, Sargents, Sedalia, Sedgwick, Seibert, Severance, Shawnee, Sheridan, Sheridan Lake, Silt, Silver Creek, Silver Plume, Silverthorne, Silverton, Simla, Slater, Snowmass, Snowmass Village, Snyder, Somerset, South Fork, Springfield, Starkville, Steamboat Springs, Sterling, Stoneham, Strasburg, Stratton, Sugar City, Swink

T
Tabernash, Telluride, Thornton, Timnath, Toponas, Towaoc, Trinchera, Trinidad, Twin Lakes, Two Buttes

U
U S A F Academy

V
Vail, Vernon, Victor, Vilas, Villa Grove, Vona

W
Walden, Walsenburg, Walsh, Ward, Watkins, Weldona, Wellington, Westcliffe, Westminster, Weston, Wetmore, Wheat Ridge, Whitewater, Wiggins, Wild Horse, Wiley, Windsor, Winter Park, Wolcott, Woodland Park, Woodrow, Woody Creek, Wray

Y
Yampa, Yellow Jacket, Yoder, Yuma

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Luciano Mende

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