BOSTON, THE CAPITAL AND LARGEST CITY OF MASSACHUSETTS

Boston

Boston is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is considered the economic and cultural center of the region, and is sometimes regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England." Boston city proper had a 2015 estimated population of 622,420, making it the twenty-first largest in the country. Boston is also the anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area called Greater Boston, home to 4.4 million people and the tenth-largest metropolitan area in the country. Greater Boston as a commuting region includes parts of Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Maine; it includes 7.4 million people, making it the fifth-largest Combined Statistical Area in the country.

In 1630, Puritan colonists from England founded the city on the Shawmut Peninsula. During the late eighteenth century Boston was the location of several major events during the American Revolution, including the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. Several early battles of the American Revolution, such as the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston, occurred within the city and surrounding areas. Through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the peninsula. After American independence was attained Boston became a major shipping port and manufacturing center, and its rich history now attracts 16.3 million visitors annually. The city was the site of several firsts, including America's first public school, Boston Latin School (1635), and first college, Harvard College (1636), in neighboring Cambridge. Boston was also home to the first subway system in the United States.

With many colleges and universities within the city and surrounding area, Boston is a center of higher education and a center for medicine. The city's economy is also based on research, finance, and technology – principally biotechnology. Boston ranks first in the country in jobs per square mile ahead of New York City and Washington DC. The city has been experiencing gentrification and has one of the highest costs of living in the United States, though remains high on world livability rankings.

Boston - Metro System

The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, often referred to as the MBTA or simply The T, is the public operator of most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area. Officially a "body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision" of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, it was formed in 1964. Its immediate predecessor, the Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA), was immortalized by The Kingston Trio in the popular folk-protest lament "M.T.A." Locals call it simply "The T", after its logo, the letter T in a circle, adopted in the 1960s and inspired by the Stockholm Metro. In 2014, the system averaged 1.3 million passenger trips each weekday, of which the subway averaged 598,200, making it the fourth busiest subway system in the United States. The Green Line and Ashmont–Mattapan High Speed Line of the T comprise the busiest light-rail system in the U.S, with a weekday ridership of 255,100.

The MBTA also operates an independent law enforcement agency, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police. In 2013, 31.60% of workers in the city proper commuted by public transport.

The MBTA is one of only two U.S. transit agencies that operate all of the five major types of transit vehicles: regional (commuter) rail trains, "heavy" rapid transit (subway/elevated) trains, light rail vehicles (trolleys), electric trolleybuses and motor buses. The other is Philadelphia's Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA).

The MBTA is the largest consumer of electricity in Massachusetts, and the second-largest land owner after the Department of Conservation and Recreation. As of 2007, its CNG bus fleet was the largest consumer of alternative fuels in the state.

On June 26, 2009, Governor Deval Patrick signed a law to place the MBTA along with other state transportation agencies within the administrative authority of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT), with the MBTA now part of the Mass Transit division (MassTrans). The 2009 transportation law continued the MBTA corporate structure and changed the MBTA board membership to the five Governor-appointed members of the Mass DOT Board.

Luciano Mende

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