HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

Map of 1773 from South Carolina
The colony of Carolina was settled by English settlers, mostly from Barbados, sent by the Lords Proprietors in 1670, followed by French Huguenots. The original Carolina proprietors were aware of the threat posed by the French and Spanish presence to the south, whose Roman Catholic monarchies were enemies of England and English values. They needed to act swiftly to attract settlers. Therefore, they were one of the first colonies to grant liberty of religious practice in order to attract settlers who were Baptists, Quakers, Huguenots and Presbyterians. Jewish immigration was specifically encouraged in the Fundamental Constitutions, since Jews were seen as reliable citizens. The Jewish immigrants were fleeing the Spanish Inquisition, which was being perpetrated in the Spanish colonies in the New World.[12] During the colonial period, Africans were the largest group of immigrants, transported as indentured servants and later slaves. They constituted a majority of the colony's population throughout the period. The Carolina upcountry was settled largely by Scots-Irish migrants from Pennsylvania and Virginia, following the Great Wagon Road. From 1670-1717, English and British traders spurred the economy in South Carolina by conducting a booming trade in Indian slaves. The slave trade affected the entire southeast region. They bought or traded for slaves from American Indian tribes south of the Tennessee and east of the Mississippi rivers. Indians competed for European trade goods, including cloth and guns.

Historian Alan Gallay estimates that Carolinians exported 24,000-51,000 Indian slaves during this period.[13] Oppressed by the slave trade, an alliance among the tribes developed, and they attacked the settlers in the Province of South Carolina in the Yamasee War (1715-1717). Its casualty rate was among the highest of the Indian Wars, and for more than a year, the Indians seriously threatened the continued existence of the colony. Among the settlers, there was dissatisfaction with the Proprietors who governed the colony. As a result, the Carolinas was split, and South Carolina became a royal colony in 1719. The emerging planter class had been using revenues from the sale of Indian slaves to finance the purchase of enslaved Africans; after the Yamasee War, South Carolina colonists turned to using exclusively African slaves for labor for their new commodity crops of rice and indigo crops.

HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
This historic home is at The Battery, a neighborhood park area at the Downtown Historic District of Charleston a well-known historical city in South Carolina. The Battery is also known as White Point Gardens.

On March 15, 1776, the colony declared its independence from Great Britain and set up its own government, the first colony to do so. To win South Carolina's support for the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson removed all material from the document that condemned slavery. On February 5, 1778, South Carolina became the first state to ratify the document which created the "United States of America" as an entity — the Articles of Confederation. However, in 1780, South Carolinian loyalists to the British crown helped British troops recapture South Carolina from the previously successful rebels.

The current United States Constitution was proposed for adoption by the States on September 17, 1787, and South Carolina was the 8th state to ratify it, on May 23, 1788. The American Revolution caused a shock to slavery in the South. Tens of thousands of slaves fought with the British to obtain freedom, and thousands left with them in the last days of the war; others secured their freedom by escaping in the turmoil. Estimates are that 25,000 slaves (30% of those in South Carolina) fled, migrated or died during the disruption of the war.

South Carolina politics between 1783 and 1795 were marred by rivalry between a Federalist elite's supporting the central government in Philadelphia and a large proportion of common people. The latter were often members of 'Republican Societies', and they supported the Republican-Democrats, headed by Jefferson and Madison. This party wanted more democracy in the US, especially in South Carolina. Most people supported the French Revolution (1789-1795), as the French had been allies and they were proud of their own revolution. Charleston was the most French-influenced city in the USA after New Orleans, which was not yet part of the nation. Leading South Carolina figures, such as Pinckney and Governor Moultrie, backed with money and actions the French plans to further their political, strategic, and commercial goals in North America. This pro-French stance and attitude of South Carolina ended soon due to the XYZ Affair.

Antebellum, South Carolina did more to advance nullification and secession than any other Southern state. In 1832, a South Carolina state convention passed the Ordinance of Nullification, declaring the Federal tariff laws of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional, null and not to be enforced in the state of South Carolina after February 1, 1833. This led to the Nullification Crisis, in which U. S. President Andrew Jackson received congressional authorization, through the Force Bill, to use whatever military force necessary to enforce Federal law in the state. This was the first U. S. legislation denying individual states the right to secede. As a result of Jackson's threat of force, the South Carolina state convention was re-convened and repealed the Ordinance of Nullification in March. Anti-abolitionist feelings ran strong in South Carolina. In 1856, South Carolina congressman Preston Brooks entered the United States Senate chamber and, with a metal-tipped cane, beat Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner. He drew blood and injured Sumner badly enough that the latter was unable to serve for several months. Brooks was retaliating for a speech Sumner had just given in which he attacked slavery and insulted South Carolinians. Brooks resigned his seat but received a hero's welcome on returning home.

On December 20, 1860, when it became clear that Lincoln would be the next president, South Carolina became the first state to declare its secession from the Union. On April 12, 1861, Confederate batteries began shelling Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, and the American Civil War began. The Union Navy effectively blockaded Charleston and seized the Sea Islands. Planters had taken their families (and sometimes slaves) to points inland for refuge. The Union Army set up an experiment in freedom for the ex-slaves, in which they started education and farmed land for themselves. South Carolina troops participated in major Confederate campaigns, but no major battles were fought inland. General William Tecumseh Sherman marched through the state in early 1865, destroying numerous plantations, and captured the state capital of Columbia on February 17. Fires began that night and by next morning, most of the central city was destroyed.

After the war, South Carolina was restored to the United States during Reconstruction. Under presidential Reconstruction (1865-66), freedmen (former slaves) were given limited rights. Under Radical reconstruction (1867-1877), a Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags was in control, supported by Union Army forces. The withdrawal of Union soldiers as part of the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction. White Democrats used paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts to intimidate and terrorize black voters. They regained political control of the state under conservative white "Redeemers" and pro-business Bourbon Democrats.

The state became a hotbed of racial and economic tensions during the Populist and Agrarian movements of the 1890s. Passage of the new conservative constitution of 1895 meant that almost all blacks and many poor whites were effectively disfranchised by new requirements for poll taxes, residency and literacy tests. By 1896, only 5,500 black voters remained on the registration rolls. The 1900 census demonstrated the extent of disfranchisement: African Americans comprised more than 58% of the state's population, but their total of 782,509 citizens was essentially without any political representation. "Pitchfork Ben Tillman" controlled state politics from the 1890s to 1910 with a base among poor white farmers. Although the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, guaranteeing women the right to vote, was ratified nationally in 1920, South Carolina did not ratify it until July 1, 1969. It did not certify the ratification until August 22, 1973. Georgia, North Carolina, and Louisiana ratified the Amendment in 1970 and 1971; only Mississippi implemented it later than South Carolina, not ratifying the Nineteenth Amendment until 1984.
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20th century and beyond
Early in the 20th century, South Carolina developed a thriving textile industry. The state also converted its agricultural base from cotton to more profitable crops, attracted large military bases, and created tourism industries. Like most states in the South, South Carolina continues to struggle with desegregation. The integration of Clemson University is an example of a state institution's ability to achieve "integration with dignity". Of extended controversy has been the State's display of the Flags of the Confederate States of America. On July 1, 2000, South Carolina became the last state to remove the Confederate Flag from over its statehouse (it had originally been placed there in 1962). The state Senate had approved a bill for its removal on April 12, 2000 by a margin of 36 to 7; the bill had specified that a Confederate flag be flown in front of the Capitol next to a monument's honoring fallen Confederate soldiers. Debate was more heated in the state House of Representatives, which passed the bill on May 18, 2000 by a margin of only 66 to 43, after including a measure's ensuring that the Confederate flag by the monument be 30 feet high. The flag by the monument continues to cause controversy. The NAACP maintains an economic boycott of the state of South Carolina. The NCAA refuses to allow South Carolina to host NCAA athletic events whose locations are determined in advance. On July 6, 2009, the Atlantic Coast Conference announced a decision to move three future baseball tournaments out of South Carolina, citing concerns by the NAACP's over the state's continuing display of the Confederate flag.

Luciano Mende

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